SOUTH FERRIBY.--May 5th, 1894.

 This excursion, the first one of the season, was favoured by an exceptionally fine day, and was well attended. The President leading, the party proceeded along the Humber bank from Barton to South Ferriby, where the Forest or Peat bed is exposed at low tide-- This section probably belongs to the submerged Forest Beds underlying the Warp and which are from time to time exposed on both sides of the Humber. This bed contains the trunks of trees and occasionally mammalian bones are found, several bones and teeth being obtained on this excursion: Horns of the Red Deer (Cervus daphus) have also been found in this Section. From the Peat Bed eastward, a low cliff, varying in height from 3 to 20 feet, forms the Southern Bank of the Humber for about a mile; the first few hundred yards of the Western end of this cliff section was found to consist of river warp and recent accumulations, which as the cliff gained in height to the Eastward gradually passed into chalky gravel, also possibly of post-glacial age. This gravel thins out in its turn, and at a point about two-thirds of a mile from the Western extremity of the section, indicated by a small house on the top of the cliff, gives place to true Boulder Clay. At this point the cliff is 20 feet high and the Boulder Clay was seen to rest on the solid chalk which formed the pre-glacial bed of the Humber. The remainder of the cliff to the Eastward is entirely of Boulder Clay divided into two beds, the lower one resembling the purple clay in colour and contains the largest boulders, which consist chiefly of local rocks, but rocks foreign to the district were also plentiful.



Whit Monday, May 14th 1894.

 A section of the Lower Kellaways on the right hand side of the road, a few hundred yards north of the Railway Station, was first visited. This section consists of fine white sand with occasional ferruginous streaks, on the top of which the Gryphaea bed with G. bilobata was seen; Bel. Owenii was also noticed. A quarry of Millepore Limestone, in a field on the right hand side of the road to Hotham, next came under observation; the exposure shewed alternate bands of sandstone and limestone, with a bed of large waterworn nodular masses of limestone; fossils were numerous, the most interesting being three or four echinoderms (Echinorissus scutatus and others), the remainder including Univalves :--Chemnetzia and Cerithium-- Bivalves :--Avicula braamburiensis, Rhynchonella spinosa, Terebratula, Modiola, Trigonia conjungens, Lima pectiniformis--A small Pentacrinus , Serpula, the coral Cricopora straminea, and a carbonaceous band containing plant remains, were also seen. Two other pits, in the third field to the north of that containing the latter quarry, were also examined both being of Millepore, yielded fossils contained in the above list. The party then crossed the fields and followed the road to Newbald, where a large pit exposure of Kellaways sand with the Gryphaea bilobata bed on the top, was visited. The usual Kellaways fossils were noticed, (chiefly casts) such as Isocardia, Ammonites (2 species), Rhynchonella socialis, etc. Also in this pit is a bed of Boulder Clay, from one to four feet in thickness, containing local rocks only. The pit on the North side of the Church, at Sancton was next made for. The lower half of this pit consists of pure white sand-rock about 8 feet in thickness, divided into layers by beds of fine white mica, dipping at an angle of 8 to 10 degs. and being the lowest part of the Kellaways sand -- above this is a remarkable Boulder Clay, 13 to 15 feet in thickness, containing rocks of various sizes, including White and Red Chalk, Flints, Millepore, Lias and others, and large concretionary nodules (most probably Liassic), a small pebble of Quartzite was noticed -- Many of the boulders contained characteristic fossils. After a thorough examination of this section, the members returned to Newbald and followed the road to- wards Beverley, crossing which the Red, Lower (Grey), and Middle Chalk, could be distinctly traced, but the "black band" was not noticed. Crossing the fields to the top of Drewton Dale, St. Austin's Stone was next examined; this now projecting rock is composed of small angular fragments of flint and chalk, which have at sometime filled an opening in the chalk rock, and have been cemented together by a siliceous solution forming a "breccia" harder than the Chalk itself, which on denudation taking place, has left the so-called stone projecting from the valley side in a similar manner to the Burdale " Fairy Stones'.


BRIDLINGTON and FILEY.--June 8th and 9th, 1894.

 On the invitation of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society, our Society joined them on this Excursion, for the examination of the Coast between Bridlington and Filey.

 Leaving Bridlington on Friday morning, under the leadership of Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., F.G.S., Prof. P. F. Kendall, F.G.S., and Mr. J. W. Stather, F.G.S., the party walked along the beach, noticing, en passant, the Lacustrine deposit in the cliffs immediately to the North of the sea wall, and the point where the Chalk Cliff passes under the Boulder Clay at Sewerby, the site of Mr. Lamplugh's excavations. The Chalk Cliffs with their capping of Boulder Clay were then carefully examined. On the East side of the South Landing the more adventurous members of the party descended the cliffs by the aid of a rope and anchor to examine the shell bed originally discovered by Mr. Lamplugh ; the shells were very fragmentary and decayed and but few good specimens were obtained, amongst them Prof. Kendall identified the following :--Venus exoleta, Cardium edule, Astarte borealis, Astarte compressa (with both valves intact), Dentalium entalis, Cyprina islandica, Peecten islandicus and Tellina balthica.

 At Flamborough, waggonettes were taken to the Lighthouses, the "blowholes" through which the spray is violently dashed being visited. A little to the North of the Lighthouses are interesting patches of Speeton Clay and Red Chalk removed from Speeton and deposited on the Chalk Cliffs about 150 feet above sea level, by glacial action. These patches yielded a large quantity of characteristic fossils. At Selwicks Bay, the contorted strata and veins of Calcite attracted notice, as also did the effects of the erosion of the Chalk Cliffs at Thornwick, and the wonderful contortion of the strata at Old Dor. In the fields on the North side of Flamborough Head were large quantities of flat angular pieces of chalk, some of which were 6 inches square, which had been dislodged from the face of the cliff and scattered over the fields for a considerable distance inland, by the gale of November, 1893. From Bempton Station the party returned to Bridlington by train after an excellent day, to the enjoyment of which the fine weather and magnificent cliff scenery contributed. In the evening the General Meeting of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society was held, W. H. Hudleston, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.LS., F.G.S., being the Chairman; when F. F. Walton, Esq., F.G.S., Prof. Kendall, F.G.S., and Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., F.G.S., read papers. On Saturday morning, leaving Filey under the leadership of Prof. Kendall and Mr. J. W. Stather, the cliffs between Filey and Speeton were examined. Amongst the Boulders seen, were Rhomb-porphyry, Porphyrite, Chlorite-schist, Augite-syenite, Shap Granite, Dolerite shewing ophitic structure, Magnesian Limestone and Brockram. At Speeton the Kimmeridge and Speeton Clays and the Red, Grey, and White Chalk were carefully examined, a large number of fossils rewarding the search. The climb up the cliffs and the examination of Beacon Hill, etc., finished a pleasant and instructive excursion.


SKIPSEA and ULROME -- June 23rd, 1894.

 The weather being exceptionally fine a large number were present, including members of the Hull Scientific Club, Field Naturalists' Society and Students' Association -- conveyances were requisitioned to drive the party from Hornsea to Skipsea, on reaching this village the party alighted and made their way to the summit of the central mound of the remarkable earthworks which exist here, where Mr. J. R. Boyle, F.S.A., delivered an address -- He said, we are now in the centre of the most important and best preserved British fortress in the East Riding of Yorkshire. It has been usual for local antiquaries to regard these extensive and impressive defences as the work of Drogo de Brevere, to whom William the Conqueror granted the lordship of almost the whole of Holderness. It is quite certain that Drogo built a castle here, but it is equally certain that these works form no part of that castle. They are indeed many centuries earlier than the time of Drogo. This fortification must have been raised before the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, but how long before it is impossible to say. When Drogo became lord paramount of Holderness he needed a castle, and finding this wonderful defensive work ready to his hand he did what, under circumstances was most natural. He built a shell keep on the crown of the central mound. No part of that keep now remains; but its complete disappearance is a work of very recent times. The central mound of this British Castle answered the same purpose as a keep in a Norman Castle. The crown would be protected by a palisade, and it is easy to understand how a small garrison planted here might keep a much larger force at bay. But this mound was merely regarded as a dernier resort after the outworks had been won. The space between the mound and the outer ramparts is the real castle. The mound is almost circular in plan, is about 70 feet in height, and is surrounded by a ditch. The outer vallum is nearly a quarter of a mile away, giving to the enclosed space a diameter of nearly half a mile. This vallum is even now in some parts from 80 to 90 feet in height, and has a ditch both on its inner and outer side. The vallum has never formed a complete circle, as the Eastern side of the camp was sufficiently protected by an impassable marsh -- leaving the site of the castle an attempt was made to find the lake dwellings discovered by Mr. T. Boynton near Ulrome but in the unavoidable absence of that gentleman such traces as were found hardly rewarded the search. After tea at the village of Ulrome, the cliffs between that place and Hornsea were followed, the first point of interest being the Skipsea lacustrine deposit which is a section of one of the numerous filled up meres of Holderness. The alternate beds of peat, clay and marl are clearly shewn as separate beds and do not merge into one another, One section was as follows:-- surface earth, a few inches, trees, branches, etc., 3 feet, Black peaty clay, 4 feet, marl, 2 feet, gravel, 3 feet, resting on Boulder Clay. Many fresh water shells were found, and in the peat, shells of hazel nuts were seen. The most important find at this place however was the end of a stake, which no doubt had been pointed artificially. It was in the clay near the North end of the section about five feet from the beach, and was not quite perpendicular with the point downwards. Above the peaty clay in which it was found is a layer about 8 inches in thickness of small branches and twigs resembling the brushwood above the Lake-dwelling at Ulrome, the proximity of the edge of the lake rendering this the most likely place for such a dwelling. Many boulders were observed on the beach and cliff top, including Shap granite, Brockram, Armboth-dyke, quartz porphyry and Augite-syenite.


HESSLE  -- July 5th, 1894.

 The recently opened gravel pits on the Southfield Estate were first examined. Dr. Walton, F.G.S., pointed out the position of the buried cliff and described the gravels banked up against it, and the various mammalian bones found therein. The Boulder Clay covering the gravels was carefully examined, after which the Boulder Clays and gravels at the Hessle Cliff chalk quarries were investigated. These gravels and mammalian remains are described in detail in Dr. Walton's paper on page 17 of these Transactions.


KNARESBORO'--July 14th, 1894.


 Knaresboro' is very picturesquely situated on the River Nidd, and there are many instructive sections along the river banks showing the junction of the Carboniferous with the Permian Rocks. A visit was first paid to the cliff on which the castle is built, which shows at its base the coarse red Plumpton Grit, upon an irregular denuded surface of which rests the Lower Magnesian Limestone--a soft yellow sandy rock--enclosing pebbles of the Grits at its base. This section also shows a large trunk of Sigillaria weathered out of the Grit. Many fine sections showing this sarne unconformity were seen during the walk from the castle to Grimbald Bridge. Near Goldsborough Mill the Middle Red Marls were seen resting on the Magnesian Limestone;.while in Bilton Fields the Limestone has thinned out and the marl comes in nearly upon the Millstone Grits, which are continuous up to the viaduct. The numerous drift deposits were examined for erratics, but pebbles foreign to the water shed were not met with.


WILLERBY -- July 28th, 1894.

Under the leadership of the President, the Railway cutting between Willerby and Little Weighton was examined. The cutting rises to about 40 feet in height and exposes the Middle Chalk, with a capping of Boulder Clay 10 feet in thickness at one point. The first halt was made at the Whiting Works, the Boulder Clay here yielding Black Flint, Red Chalk, Oolite, Mountain Limestone, Quartzite, Granite, Porphyry and Bel. Mucronata. The quarry at this place is about 100 feet deep, and the chalk is divided into beds by the flint bands common in the Middle Chalk. In the chalk side of the cutting to the West of this quarry, a band of flint runs horizontally at about 12 feet above the metals, immediately below which, Micraster and Ananchytes ovatus were unusually plentiful and the zone containing them was traced for a considerable distance along the cutting. Rhynchonella, Inoceramus and an urchin resembling Echinoconus conicus were also found here. A piece of Rhomb porphyry and shells were found in the footway, but no doubt these were deposited here with the gravel topping to the permanent way and illustrates the necessity of seeing the boulders in the clay itself. The continuity of the sides of the cutting is broken by crossing valleys of erosion defined as such by well-marked bands of flint, the latter occasionally shewing small faults in the chalk. The cutting at Little Weighton was very unproductive of fossils, contrasting with the Willerby end of the cutting in this respect.


SPURN and DIMLINGTON--August 4th.

 This excursion was arranged in conjunction with the Hull Scientific Club.

 The party proceeded to Withernsea by train and accomplished the remainder of the journey by waggonettes. The geologists leaving the main party, descended to the sea shore at Out Newton and found both cliffs and beach in an unusually favourable condition for observation of the varied glacial phenomena for which this district is famous. It was low tide and a large area of the beach opposite Dimlington High-land was clear of sand and shingle and the basement or lowest clay laid bare. In the cliffs, which are here entirely composed of Boulder Clay, the junction of the basement clay with the over-laying purple clay, was distinctly traced, and thousands of boulders of far travelled rocks, many of them of large size, were seen both in the cliff and scattered along the beach below. In addition to a large collection of rock specimens the collectors of the party obtained from the basement clay the following shells :-- Nucula Cobboldiae, Tellina balthica, Cardium edule, Mya truncate, Cyprina islandica, Pholas crispate, Astarte borealis, Saxicava rugosa, A. compressa, Dentalium entalis, A. sulcata,  Turritella, A. crebricostata, Balanus.

 Here and there in the basement clay on the beach, occur large patches of a sandy sage-green clay, free from boulders and pebbles. From these patches most of the shells were obtained. With regard to the rapid denudation of the coast, Dr. Hewitson, of Easington, informed the party that to his certain knowledge, that opposite the village, a strip of land 27 feet wide had disappeared in 15 months.



WITH THE Y. N. UNION--August 6th, 1894.

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union held its one hundred and eleventh meeting at South Cave on this date, and the geological section under the direction of Dr. F. F. Walton, F.G.S., (President of the Hull Geological Society) was well attended by local geologists.

The geology of the Cave district is chiefly interesting from its comprising a wide range of formations in small compass. The Jurassic Strata upon which South Cave is situated forms the strip of country, under three miles wide, between the Trias of the plain of York and the Chalk Wolds. The beds which include the Lower, Middle and Upper Lias, Lower, Middle and Upper Oolites, run roughly N.N.W. and S.S.E. and dip under the chalk in an Easterly direction.

 Between North Cave and the village of Cliff the Lower Lias forms a low escarpment and the beds are well exposed in several marl pits on the road side -- the first and largest of which yielded :- Am. Johnstoni, Ostrea liassica, Pecten sp. Nautilus striatus, Modiola minima, Spine of Cidaris, Lima gigantean, Pleuromya crowcombeia, etc., etc. Cardinia Listeri , Avicula sp.

 The Middle Lias is exposed in the neighbourhood of Hotham and North Cave, being cut into by the roads going up the bank E. of these places. The Lower Oolite of this district is well exposed W. of South Cave Station and in adjacent quarries -- for particulars of which see excursion May 14. Of the Middle Oolites represented here the Kellaways Rock is the most important member. It reaches a thickness of more than 40 feet and was seen in a fine section in the cutting E. of South Cave Station. Fossils were abundant -- The following species were noted :- Am. Nodiolaris, Rhynchonella socialis, Am. Gowerianus, Pecten fibrosus, Am. Keenigi, Trigonia, Bel. Owenii, Gryphaea bilobata, Myacites, Pinna, Avicula braamburiensis Etc., etc.


[Note -This article has been scanned in from original printed format and then put through an OCR program by Mike Horne. The process may have introduced some new spelling errors to the texts. Some original misspellings have been corrected.]


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