Skipsea Withow Mere
measured 25/5/2002 by Alan Evans, Colin Clark , Kate Dennett, Mike Horne, Paul Richards & Stuart Jones (students on Centre for Lifelong Learning class at Hull University- tutor Mike Horne).
Raw data -
We measured the thickness at 19 points marked by pegs, numbered south to north. The site of each peg was measured to the west a line running south-north at about 346 degrees (magnetic). The height of the cliff was estimated from a horizontal line, which was about 1.5m above beach level at Peg no. 6. The beach sand was very high when we measured the section and was banked up against the cliff in places..
Here is (some of) the raw data (subject to correction):
Details of the pegs:-
measurements are in metres.
|Peg number||distance north||distance west||height of cliff top from string|
Peg no. 1 was at a yellow plastic drain pipe in the cliff . There was an asbestos drain pipe at peg 12. Peg 19 was high on a ridge near a a large concrete block on the beach. Note - pegs 5-13 were measured from the bottom up and the figures have been recalculated and descriptions simplified.
peg 1 - top, 560mm subsoil with much chalk inclusion, 360mm coarse sand with iron staining, 300mm coarse sandy blue clay, 5mm fine gravel, 70mm sandy blue grey clay with small pebbles up to 10mm dia., 55mm orange sandy material containing pebbles, 50mm blue grey clay (upper 25mm sandy), 65mm orange sandy material containing pebbles, 100mm blue grey clay, 10mm fine sand, base = grey clay.
peg 1A - measured 14 June - 30cm topsoil, 45cm brown clay with pebbles, 18cm rusty chalky orange gravel, 5cm brown clay, 6cm rusty orange gravel, 13cm brown clay, 7cm rusty orange gravel, 18cm brown clay, 6 cm rusty orange gravel (dipping steeply), 30cm brown clay.
peg 2 - top, 550mm sub-soil, 560mm coarse sandy clay, 160mm coarse sand with pebbles up to 10mm dia., 120mm blue grey clay, 140mm coarse iron stained sand with pebbles to 10mm dia., 700mm blue grey sandy clay, base = blue grey clay with course iron stained (red) sand pockets.
peg 3 - top, 550mm sub-soil, 200mm brown clay, 460mm loose layered decomposed vegetation with twigs and branches with evidence of beach and oak, 150mm fine to medium grained sand, 100 brown peaty clay, 70mm fine sand, base = blue grey clay.
peg 4 - top, 550 top soil, 200mm brown clay, 1300mm loose layered decomposed vegetation with twigs and branches with Evidence of beach and oak, 150mm fine to medium-grained sand, 100mm brown peaty clay, base = blue grey clay.
peg 5 - top eroded, 85cm woody peat, 58cm peat, 5cm layered silt with sand, >12cm dense black peat
remeasured 14 June - 85cm topsoil and brown clay, 95cm twiggy peat, 65cm dark brown peat, >30cm black peat (very soft - auger went down >1m without reaching clay)
peg 6 - top, 81cm topsoil, 55cm twiggy/woody peat, 40cm peat, 40cm dark brown peat, >20cm black peat.
peg 7 - top, 89cm soil, 70cm twiggy peat merging into : 45cm dark brown peat, >20cm black peat
peg 8 - top eroded, 53cm twiggy peat, 37cm denser darker peat, >20cm black peat.
remeasured 14 June - 18cm very modern top soil, 43cm soil, 43cm subsoil/clay, 87cm twiggy peat, >60cm black fine peat.
peg 9 - top, 10cm sandy modern topsoil, 99cm topsoil, 63cm fibrous peat, >47cm dark peat
peg 10 - top, 4cm sandy topsoil, 101cm soil, 26cm fibrous peat, 43cm darker denser peat, 6cm dark twiggy peat, >45cm black peat
peg 11 - top, 80cm topsoil, 48cm fibrous peat, 42cm brown dense peat, 4cm twiggy peat, >19cm very dark peat
peg 12 - top eroded, >70cm twiggy fibrous peat
remeasured 14 June - 10cm bricks, 27cm recent made-ground with pebbles and glass, 40cm brown clay/subsoil, >1m twiggy peat
peg 13 - top, 250mm top soil, 220mm brown clay, 150mm brown peaty clay, 900mm loose layered decomposed vegetation with twigs and branches with evidence of beach and oak, base = peat.
peg 14 - top, 400mm top soil, 500mm boulder clay, 900mm loose layered decomposed vegetation with twigs and branches with evidence of beach and oak, 260mm fine dark brown peat, 200mm sandy clay, base = blue grey clay.
peg 15 - top, 90cm soil and brown clay, 87cm peat, 4cm grey clay, 14cm gravel, >2m boulder clay.
peg 16 - top = 100mm concrete base, 1300mm clay, 300mm loose layered decomposed vegetation with twigs and branches with Evidence of beach and oak, 750mm grey clay, base = blue-grey clay.
peg 17 - top, 95cm soil and brown clay, 35cm peat, 60cm brown shelly silts grading into grey laminated silts at base, 4cm orange-brown clay, 25cm grey shelly silts, 10cm sandy gravel, boulder clay.
peg 18 - top, 90cm soil and brown clay, 25cm dark brown clay, 20cm peat (silty at top sandy at base), 5cm sand, >60cm laminated silts.
peg 19 - top, 800mm top soil, 700mm sandy clay, 620mm clay with chalk inclusions, 200mm coarse iron-stained sand, base = brown clay
Figure 5.19 and page 78 of Chapter 5 (Palaeoenvironmental survey of the meres of Holderness and table 15.3 and pages 352-3 of Chapter 15 (Preservation of Archaeological Sites) in Van de Noort R and Ellis S (eds) 1995. Wetland heritage of Holderness. Humber Wetlands Project, University of Hull. 387pp
Gilbertson D D, D J Briggs, A M Blackman, S J Cale, A R Hall, C O Hunt, N M Thew 1987. The Late Quaternary lake margin sequence at Skipsea Withow Mere. pp 58-68 of S Ellis (ed) East Yorkshire Field Guide Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge.
Van de Noort R & Davies P 1993. Wetland Heritage - an archaeological assessment of the Humber Wetlands. English Heritage.
copyright - Hull Geological Society 2014